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What evidence was used?

A secondary analysis was performed on data from 26,751 individuals from 27 EU member states (EU MS), collected during the 2012 Special Eurobarometer survey (wave 77.1). The survey included respondents aged ≥15 years, with samples selected through a multi-stage sampling design in each MS. Interviews were conducted in people’s homes and in the language of each country.

Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS in eating or drinking establishments during the past 6 months, and/or in their workplace.

Data on smoke-free policies were extracted from the “Smoke-free work and other public places” component of the European Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) in 2013. According to this scale, EU MS were scored according to their smoke-free legislation and the level of its implementation (possible range zero to 22), based on the following criteria: workplaces excluding cafes and restaurants (maximum 10 points); cafes and restaurants (maximum 8 points); and public transport and other public places (maximum 4 points).

All analyses were performed among nonsmokers. To assess the determinants of exposure to SHS among young people and adults in the EU, multi-variable logistic regression models were fitted, one for each outcome variable: SHS exposure in bars; SHS exposure in restaurants; and SHS exposure at the workplace.

Independent variables included the participants’ age; geographic region; educational level; difficulty to pay bills; gender; the prevalence of smoking in the country; and level of smoke-free policies in the country based on the SHS component of the TCS.