Forey BA, Thornton AJ, Lee PN. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema. BMC Pulmonary Mediicne 2011; 11: 36.
Afonso AS, Verhamme KM, Sturkenboom MC, Brusselle GG. COPD in the general population: prevalence, incidence and survival. Respiratory Medicine 2011; 105: 1872-1884.
Boggia B, Farinaro E, Grieco L, Lucariello A, Carbone U. Burden of smoking and occupational exposure on etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in workers of Southern Italy. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2008; 50: 366-370.
Brito-Mutunayagam R, Appleton SL, Wilson DH, Ruffin RE, Adams RJ. Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease stage 0 is associated with excess FEV1 decline in a representative population sample. Chest 2010; 138: 605-613.
de Marco R, Accordini S, Marcon A, Cerveri I, Anto JM, Gislason T, et al. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a European cohort of young adults. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011; 183: 891-897.
Garcia Rodriguez LA, Wallander MA, Tolosa LB, Johansson S. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in UK primary care: incidence and risk factors. COPD 2009; 6: 369-379.
Godtfredsen NS, Vestbo J, Osler M, Prescott. Risk of hospital admission for COPD following smoking cessation and reduction: a Danish population study. Thorax 2002; 57: 967-972.
Harik-KhanRI, Fleg JL, Wise RA. Body mass index and the risk of COPD. Chest 2002; 121: 370-376.
Hukkinen M, Korhonen T, Heikkila K, Kaprio J. Association between smoking behavior patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a long-term follow-up study among Finnish adults. Annals of Medicine 2012; 44: 598-606.
Humerfelt S, Gulsvik A, Skjaerven R, Nilssen S, Kvale G, Sulheim O, et al. Decline in FEV1 and airflow limitation related to occupational exposures in men of an urban community. European Respiratory Journal 1993; 6: 1095-1103.
Iribarren C, Tekawa IS, Sidney S, Friedman GD. Effect of cigar smoking on the risk of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer in men. The New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340: 1773-1780.
Jedrychowski W. Biological meaning of the prospective epidemiological study on chronic obstructive lung disease and aging. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 1983; 2: 237-248.
Johannessen A, Omenaas E, Bakke P, Gulsvik A. Incidence of GOLD-defined obstructive pulmonary disease in a general adult population. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2005; 9: 926-932.
Karakatsani A, Andreadaki S, Katsouyanni K, Dimitroulis I, Trichopoulos D, Benetou V, Trichopoulou A. Air pollution in relation to manifestations of chronic pulmonary disease: a nested case-control study in Athens, Greece 2003; 18: 45-53.
Krzyzanowski M, Jedrychowski W, Wysocki M. Factors associated with change in ventilator function and the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a 13 year follow up of the Cracow study. Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1986; 134: 1011-1019.
Kojima S, Sakakibara H, Motani S, Hirose K, Mizuno F, Ochiai M, Hashimoto S. Incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the relationship between age and smoking in a Japanese population. Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 17: 54-60.
Lindberg A, Eriksson B, Larsson LG, Ronmark E, Sandstrom T, Lundback B. Seven-year cumulative incidence of COPD in an age-stratified general population sample. Chest 2006; 129: 879-885.
Omori H, Nagano M, Funakoshi Y, Onoue A, Mihara S, Marubayashi T, Kohrogi H, Aizawa H, Katoh T. Twelve-year cumulative incidence of airflow obstruction among Japanese males. Internal Medicine 2011; 50: 1537-1544.
Osaka D, Shibata Y, Abe S, Inoue S, Tokairin Y, Igarashi A, et al. Cigarette smoking causes airflow limitation in Japanese healthy individuals: Takahata study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010; 181 (Meeting Abstracts).
Maranetra KN, Dejsomritrutai W, Nana A, Naruman C, Sangkaew S, Aksornin M, et al. The prevalence and incidence of COPD among urban older persons of Bangkok Metropolis. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2002; 85: 1147-1155.
Nihlen U, Nyberg P, Montnemery P, Lofdahl CG. Influence of family history and smoking habits on the incidence of self-reported physician's diagnosis of COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2004; 98: 263-270.
Silva GE, Sherill DL, Guerra S, Barbee RA. Asthma as a risk factor for COPD in a longitudinal study. Chest 2004; 126: 59-65.
Thompson WH, St-Hilaire S. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tobacco use in veterans at Boise Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Respiratory Care 2010; 55: 555-560.
van Durme YM, Verhamme KM, Stijnen T, van Rooij FJ, Van Pottelberge GR, Hofman A, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and lifetime risk for the development of COPD in the elderly: the Rotterdam study. Chest 2009; 135: 368-377.
Vestbo J, Lange P. Can GOLD Stage 0 provide information of prognostic value in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002; 166: 329-332.