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Detailed findings and data

Detailed findings and data

Effects of any household member smoking

Eighteen studies investigated the effect of any household member smoking. The evidence showed that infants exposed to smoking by any household member were 1.43 times more likely to develop LRI compared to those not exposure to any smoking in the home (pooled relative risk ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.28 to 1.59). Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure A

Geography

To explore the impact of geographical location, the analysis was grouped based on where the studies were conducted. Studies conducted in European countries showed similar risks of infants developing LRI from passive smoke exposure as compared to studies conducted elsewhere. Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure B

Quality

To explore whether methodological quality had any possible impact in the 18 studies that investigated the effect of passive smoking of household members, the analysis was grouped into higher versus lower quality studies. Similar increases in the risk of infants developing  LRI were seen in the high, 1.49 times, and low, 1.35 times, quality studies. Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure C

Effect of smoking by both parents 

Infants exposed to both parents smoking were 1.82 times more likely to develop LRI compared to those not exposed. Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure D

Effect of paternal smoking 

Those infants exposed to paternal smoking were 1.15 times more likely to develop LRI when compared to those not exposed. Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure E

Effect of maternal smoking after birth 

Infants exposed to maternal smoking were 1.62 times more likely to develop LRI than those not exposed. Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure F

Effect of prenatal maternal smoking 

Infants exposed to prenatal maternal smoking were 1.19 times more likely to develop LRI compared to those who had not been exposed to prenatal smoking. Click here to see a forest plot of the findings ─ Figure G