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References

Systematic Reviews

Burke H, Leonardi-Bee J, Hashim A, Pine-Abata H, Chen Y, Cook D, Britton J, McKeever T. Prenatal and passive smoke exposure and incidence of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2012; 129: 735-744.

Primary Studies

Alati R, Al Mamun A, O’Callaghan M, Najman JM, Williams GM. In utero and postnatal maternal smoking and asthma in adolescence. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 138–144. 

Arshad SH, Kurukulaaratchy RJ, Fenn M, Matthews S. Early life risk factors for current wheeze, asthma, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness at 10 years of age. Chest 2005; 127: 502-8.

Bacopoulou F, Veltsista A, Vassi I. Can we be optimistic about asthma in childhood? A Greek cohort study. Journal of Asthma 2009; 46: 171–174. 

Bergmann RL, Edenharter G, Bergmann KE, Lau S, Wahn U. Socioeconomic status is a risk factor for allergy in parents but not in their children. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2000; 30: 1740–1745. 

Chan-Yeung M, Hegele RG, Dimich-Ward H. Early environmental determinants of asthma risk in a high-risk birth cohort. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2008; 19: 482– 489. 

Darlow BA, Horwood LJ, Mogridge N. Very low birthweight and asthma by age seven years in a national cohort. Pediatric Pulmonology 2000; 30: 291–296. 

de Bilderling G, Chauhan AJ, Jeffs JAR. Gas cooking and smoking habits and the risk of childhood and adolescent wheeze. American Journal of Epidemiology 2005; 162: 513–522. 

Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Parental smoking and respiratory illness during early childhood: a six-year longitudinal study. Pediatric Pulmonology 1985; 1: 99–106.

Genuneit J, Weinmayr G, Radon K. Smoking and the incidence of asthma during adolescence: results of a large cohort study in Germany. Thorax 2006; 61: 572–578.

Gilliland FD, Berhane K, Islam T. Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 158: 406–415. 

Gold DR, Burge HA, Carey V, Milton DK, Platts-Mills T, Weiss ST. Predictors of repeated wheeze in the first year of life: the relative roles of cockroach, birth weight, acute lower respiratory illness, and maternal smoking. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1999; 160: 227–236. 

Gold DR, Damokosh AI, Dockery DW, Berkey CS. Body-mass index as a predictor of incident asthma in a prospective cohort of children. Pediatric Pulmonology 2003; 36: 514– 521. 

Guedes HT, Souza LS. Exposure to maternal smoking in the first year of life interferes in breast-feeding protective effect against the onset of respiratory allergy from birth to 5 yr. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2009; 20: 30–34.

Håberg SE, Stigum H, Nystad W, Nafstad P. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to parental smoking on early childhood respiratory health. American Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 166: 679–686. 

Hagendorens MM, Bridts CH, Lauwers K. Perinatal risk factors for sensitization, atopic dermatitis and wheezing during the first year of life (PIPO study). Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2005; 35: 733–740.

Henderson AJ, Sherriff A, Northstone K, Kukla L, Hruba D. Pre- and postnatal parental smoking and wheeze in infancy: cross cultural differences. Avon Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) Study Team, European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) Co-ordinating Centre. European Respiratory Journal 2001; 18: 323–329.

Henderson AJ, Newson RB, Rose-Zerilli M, Ring SM, Holloway JW, Shaheen SO. Maternal Nrf2 and gluthathione-S-transferase polymorphisms do not modify associations of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure with asthma and lung function in schoolaged children. Thorax 2010; 65: 897– 902. 

Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Shannon FT. Social and familial factors in the development of early childhood asthma. Pediatrics 1985; 75: 859–868. 

Jaakkola JJ, Nafstad P, Magnus P. Environmental tobacco smoke, parental atopy, and childhood asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001; 109: 579–582. 

Jaakkola JJ, Gissler M. Maternal smoking in pregnancy, fetal development, and childhood asthma. American Journal of Public Health 2004; 94: 136–140. 

Jedrychowski W, Perera FP, Maugeri U. Length at birth and effect of prenatal and postnatal factors on early wheezing phenotypes. Kraków epidemiologic cohort study. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 2008; 21: 111–119. 

Johansson A, Ludvigsson J, Hermansson G. Adverse health effects related to tobacco smoke exposure in a cohort of three-year olds. Acta Paediatrica 2008; 97: 354–357. 

Kang EM, Lundsberg LS, Illuzzi JL, Bracken MB. Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and asthma in children. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2009; 114: 1295–1306. 

Karmaus W, Dobai AL, Ogbuanu I, Arshard SH, Matthews S, Ewart S. Long-term effects of breastfeeding, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections on asthma in children. Journal of Asthma 2008; 45: 688–695. 

Keil T, Lau S, Roll S. Maternal smoking increases risk of allergic sensitization and wheezing only in children with allergic predisposition: longitudinal analysis from birth to 10 years. Allergy 2009; 64: 445–451. 

Klinnert MD, Nelson HS, Price MR, Adinoff AD, Leung DY, Mrazek DA. Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: predictors from infancy. Pediatrics 2001; 108. 

Kurukulaaratchy RJ, Matthews S, Arshad SH. Does environment mediate earlier onset of the persistent childhood asthma phenotype? Pediatrics 2004; 113: 345– 350. 

Lannerö E, Wickman M, Pershagen G, Nordvall L. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE). Respiratory Research 2006; 7: 3. 

Lemanske RF, Jr, Jackson DJ, Gangnon RE. Rhinovirus illnesses during infancy predict subsequent childhood wheezing. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005; 116: 571–577. 

Lewis S, Richards D, Bynner J, Butler N, Britton J. Prospective study of risk factors for early and persistent wheezing in childhood. European Respiratory Journal 1995; 8: 349–356.

Lewis SA, Britton JR. Consistent effects of high socioeconomic status and low birth order, and the modifying effect of maternal smoking on the risk of allergic disease during childhood. Respiratory Medicine 1998; 92: 1237–1244. 

Linneberg A, Simonsen JB, Petersen J, Stensballe LG, Benn CS. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2006; 117: 184– 189. 

Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Burge HA, Weiss ST, Gold DR. Exposure to cockroach allergen in the home is associated with incident doctordiagnosed asthma and recurrent wheezing. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2001; 107: 41–47. 

Lombardi E, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Stein RT, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD. Cold air challenge at age 6 and subsequent incidence of asthma. A longitudinal study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1997; 156: 1863–1869. 

Magnusson LL, Olesen AB, Wennborg H, Olsen J. Wheezing, asthma, hayfever, and atopic eczema in childhood following exposure to tobacco smoke in fetal life. Clinical & Experimental Allergy 2005; 35: 1550–1556. 

Mallol J, Andrade R, Auger F, Rodríguez J, Alvarado R, Figueroa L. Wheezing during the first year of life in infants from low-income population: a descriptive study. Allergologia et Immunopathologia (Madrid) 2005; 33: 257–263. 

Mamun AA, Lawlor DA, Alati R, O’Callaghan MJ, Williams GM, Najman JM. Increasing body mass index from age 5 to 14 years predicts asthma among adolescents: evidence from a birth cohort study. International Journal of Obesity (London) 2007; 31: 578 583. 

Mannino DM, Mott J, Ferdinands JM. Boys with high body masses have an increased risk of developing asthma: findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). International Journal of Obesity (London) 2006; 30: 6–13. 

Martinez FD, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Taussig LM. Maternal age as a risk factor for wheezing lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life. American Journal of Epidemiology 1992; 136: 1258–1268. 

Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM, Holberg CJ, Halonen M, Morgan WJ; The Group Health Medical Associates. Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. The New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 332: 133–138. 

McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F. Indoor risk factors for asthma in a prospective study of adolescents. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 288–295. 

McKeever TM, Lewis SA, Smith C. Siblings, multiple births, and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands general practice research database. Thorax 2001; 56: 758–762. 

Menezes AMB, Hallal PC, Muiño A, Chatkin M, Araújo CLP, Barros FC. Risk factors for wheezing in early adolescence: a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2007; 98: 427–431.

Midodzi WK, Rowe BH, Majaesic CM, Saunders LD, Senthilselvan A. Predictors for wheezing phenotypes in the first decade of life. Respirology 2008; 13: 537–545. 

Miller JE. Predictors of asthma in young children: does reporting source affect our conclusions? American Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 154: 245–250. 

Milner JD, Stein DM, McCarter R, Moon RY. Early infant multivitamin supplementation is associated with increased risk for food allergy and asthma. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 27–32. 

Mrazek DA, Klinnert M, Mrazek PJ. Prediction of early-onset asthma in genetically at-risk children. Pediatric Pulmonology 1999; 27: 85–94. 

Murray CS, Woodcock A, Smillie FI, Cain G, Kissen P, Custovic A; NACMAAS Study Group. Tobacco smoke exposure, wheeze, and atopy. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004; 37: 492–498. 

Neuspiel DR, Rush D, Butler NR, Golding J, Bijur PE, Kurzon M. Parental smoking and post-infancy wheezing in children: a prospective cohort study. American Jorunal of Public Health 1989; 79: 168–171. 

Nicolaou NC, Simpson A, Lowe LA, Murray CS, Woodcock A, Custovic A. Day-care attendance, position in sibship, and early childhood wheezing: a population-based birth cohort study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2008; 122: 500–506.

Noakes P, Taylor A, Hale J. The effects of maternal smoking on early mucosal immunity and sensitization at 12 months of age. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2007; 18: 118–127. 

Oddy WH, Holt PG, Sly PD. Association between breast feeding and asthma in 6 year old children: findings of a prospective birth cohort study. BMJ 1999; 319: 815–819. 

Ponsonby AL, Couper D, Dwyer T, Carmichael A, Kemp A, Cochrane J. The relation between infant indoor environment and subsequent asthma. Epidemiology 2000; 11: 128–135.

Rönmark E, Perzanowski M, Platts-Mills T, Lundbäck B. Incidence rates and risk factors for asthma among school children: a 2-year follow-up report from the obstructive lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies. Respiratory Medicine 2002; 96: 1006–1013. 

Sangsupawanich P, Chongsuvivatwong V, Mo-Suwan L, Choprapawon C. Relationship between atopic dermatitis and wheeze in the first year of life: analysis of a prospective cohort of Thai children. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology 2007; 17: 292–296. 

Schroer KT, Biagini Myers JM, Ryan PH. Associations between multiple environmental exposures and glutathione Stransferase P1 on persistent wheezing in a birth cohort. Journal of Pediatrics 2009; 154: 401–408.

Sherman CB, Tosteson TD, Tager IB, Speizer FE, Weiss ST. Early childhood predictors of asthma. American Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 132: 83–95.

Sherriff A, Peters TJ, Henderson J, Strachan D; ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Risk factor associations with wheezing patterns in children followed longitudinally from birth to 3(1/2) years. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 1473–1484. 

Stein RT, Holberg CJ, Sherrill D. Influence of parental smoking on respiratory symptoms during the first decade of life: the Tucson Children’s Respiratory Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999; 149: 1030–1037.

Strachan DP, Butland BK, Anderson HR. Incidence and prognosis of asthma and wheezing illness from early childhood to age 33 in a national British cohort. BMJ 1996; 312: 1195–1199. 

Tanaka K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, Ohya Y, Hirota Y. Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study Group. Maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of allergic diseases in Japanese infants: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Journal of Asthma 2008; 45: 833–838 

Tariq SM, Matthews SM, Hakim EA, Stevens M, Arshad SH, Hide DW. The prevalence of and risk factors for atopy in early childhood: a whole population birth cohort study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1998; 101: 587–593. 

Tariq SM, Hakim EA, Matthews SM, Arshad SH. Influence of smoking on asthmatic symptoms and allergen sensitisation in early childhood. Postgraduate Medical Journal 2000; 76: 694–699. 

Taveras EM, Camargo CA, Jr, Rifas-Shiman SL. Association of birth weight with asthma-related outcomes at age 2 years. Pediatric Pulmonology 2006; 41: 643–648. 

Triche EW, Lundsberg LS, Wickner PG, Belanger K, Leaderer BP, Bracken MB. Association of maternal anemia with increased wheeze and asthma in children. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2011; 106: 131–139. 

Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM, Martinez FD. Factors influencing the relation of infant feeding to asthma and recurrent wheeze in childhood. Thorax 2001; 56: 192–197. 

Yang KD, Ou CY, Chang JC. Infant frequent wheezing correlated to Clara cell protein 10 (CC10) polymorphism and concentration, but not allergy sensitization, in a perinatal cohort study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2007; 120: 842–848. 

Young S, Arnott J, O’Keeffe PT, Le Souef PN, Landau LI. The association between early life lung function and wheezing during the first 2 yrs of life. European Respiratory Journal 2000; 15: 151–157. 

Yuan W, Fonager K, Olsen J, Sørensen HT. Prenatal factors and use of anti-asthma medications in early childhood: a population based Danish birth cohort study. European Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 18: 763–768. 

Zejda JE, Kowalska M. Risk factors for asthma in school children—results of a seven-year follow-up. Central European Journal of Public Health 2003; 11: 149–154